Proteins and seizure control

There are numerous medical conditions that involve the nervous system. These include things such as parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, down syndrome, autism, epilepsy, and others. Out of all the neurological medical conditions, epilepsy is the most common, and around 30% of those treated with anti epileptic drugs do not respond to the medications. There are numerous forms of treatments used for epilepsy. Epilepsy has to do with the mis firing of neurons, the main  part of what makes up the nervous system, The majority of anti epileptic drugs used have to do with specific neuron channels and neurotransmitters being controlled in order to decrease seizures from occuring. (5)

The effectiveness of epilepsy treatments is good for many individuals which use anti epileptic drugs available, but for many individuals, the current drugs that are used are not effective. There are many targets that have been found to be looked at in order to create new medications and treatments. (8). Here we will look at the target of protein and seizure control, along with its relationship to cannabis for epilepsy treatment.

 

What is G-Protein ?

G-protein is a protein that is involved in numerous types of physiological functions within the body, one of which is the regulation of neurotransmission at synapses in the brain. It is also used as a target for more than one third of current medicinal drugs (2), but it has only been recently that it has been looked at concerning its effects on the treatment of seizures. It has been shown for activation of certain proteins receptors after status epilepticus to decrease seizure activity while inhibition increases seizure activity. The susceptibility to having epilepsy may also be decreased upon its activation, pointing to this being a controlling factor in seizures (7).  It has also been shown that specific receptors control the network activity through different parts of the protein. Parts of a protein or sub protein receptor interacts with a key neurotransmitter, and without this, seizure activity has been found to be greater, making it a possible key factor in controlling seizures (4). This shows promise concerning a new treatment for epilepsy concerning the target of the main G-protein receptor and the numerous sub types.

 

Effects of the protein & sub types

The effects of different treatment concerning the G protein may also concerns genetics. Specific genes concerning the protein may help in regulating the firing of neurotransmitters, while the absence of the protein may effect key neurological, psychological, or social conditions. (9). The majority of cases concerning epilepsy have to do with the chemical imbalance of the brain in a general sense. What many doctors or individuals may not consider though are the possible effects of psychological conditions as a trigger for seizures. These may include things such as general stress, anxiety, or depression.  An increase in seizure frequency being caused by these factors may increase the release of specific neurotransmittors, causing neuron excitibility. A decrease in certain aspects of the protein associated with this neurotranscittor during or after a seizure may indicate it’s importance in seizure control. (11) Overall, it has been shown that the activity and changes of the G-protein and its sub types to be a factor in the frequency, duration, and intensity of seizures, but more research should be done in order to better understand how it works.

 

Relationship between proteins & Cannabinoids

The cannabis plant and its parts of THC and CBD have been used for centuries in order to treat numerous conditions and diseases. These include anything from general pain, to different psychological or neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, as well as other conditions. Although there has been success in treating epilepsy with cannabis, it is still not fully understood how it works.  Acute studies on the effects of CBD on seizures have been conducted, but more long term studies should be done to get a better understanding of how things work. (1) Concerning receptor of this protein, there is one main receptor, but it is joined by numerous sub types, which can affect multiple conditions such as epilepsy, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, alzheimers, parkinsons disease, and other conditions.(3). There are different receptors and channels are used by numerous cannabinoids, with each cannabinoid acting through a different one. (6). It has been shown that different cannabinoids receptors play a role in controlling the protein sub types and signaling, so understanding this relationship more could lead to new therapies or treatments for conditions such as epilepsy or other neurological disorders (10) This is only one way that the use of cannabis may assist in the treatment of epilepsy.

 

Other factors

Since the G-protein has numerous sub types, each of which have different actions, there is still much to be learned concerning its role in epilepsy and seizures. Also, when this is put together with other previous factors mentioned concerning potential targets, the possibilities in new forms of treatments may be endless. There is currently a medication on the market concerning CBD and its use for certain conditions with epilepsy such as dravettes syndrome as well as lenox gastric syndrome. Both of these are very chronic forms of epilepsy. When it is better understood exactly how the CBD may assist in decreasing the frequency, duration, and intensity of seizures, it will be easier to assess the best form of treatment for the individual.

 

Conclusion

From the numerous neurological conditions that exist, epilepsy is the most common, effecting more individuals than all the other conditions. Although there are numerous forms of treatments that are used, many are non-effective on individuals which have no response to the drugs that are taken. There are numerous targets concerning factors in controlling seizures (8), but current treatment uses only one or two of these. One potential target to be looked at is proteins and receptor in its importance in controlling seizures, The fact that the proteins relationship to CBD were shown to effect seizure frequency may also be an indicator of the possible effectiveness of using marijuana to control seizures. Other possible targets concerning epilepsy treatment and the use of cannabis should also be looked at in order to get a complete understanding of the process.

 

References

1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24854329/

2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31454545/

3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29268243/

4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30926749/

5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32581365/

6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32751761/

7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30345361/

8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33347884/

9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32248644/

10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31614728/

11. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27303056/